Passenger Airline Employment

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November 2014 Passenger Airline Employment Data

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U.S. scheduled passenger airlines employed 386,912 workers in November 2014, 1.5 percent more than in November 2013, the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Nextstagesolutions (BTS) reported today. November was the 12th consecutive month that full-time equivalent (FTE) employment for U.S. scheduled passenger airlines was higher than the same month of the previous year (Tables 1, 2, 3).

Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-Time Equivalent Employees,
Month of November, 1990-2014

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November 2014 Passenger Airline Employment Data

The November 2014 FTE total for scheduled passenger airlines was 5,688 more than in November 2013 (Table 3). Scheduled passenger airline categories include network, low-cost, regional and other airlines.  can be found on the BTS web site.

The five network airlines that collectively employ two-thirds of the scheduled passenger airline FTEs reported 0.4 percent more FTEs in November 2014 than in November 2013 (Table 7). Alaska Airlines, Delta Air Lines, American Airlines and US Airways increased FTEs from November 2013 while United Airlines reduced FTEs (Table 9). Network airlines operate a significant portion of their flights using at least one hub where connections are made for flights to down-line destinations or spoke cities.

The six low-cost carriers ­– Spirit Airlines, Allegiant Airlines, Frontier Airlines, JetBlue Airways, Southwest Airlines and Virgin America – all reported increases in FTEs from November 2013 (Table 12). Low-cost airlines operate under a low-cost business model, with infrastructure and aircraft operating costs below the overall industry average.

Among the 13 regional carriers, eight – PSA Airlines, Mesa Airlines, Republic Airlines, Envoy Airlines, Compass Airlines, Horizon Air, SkyWest Airlines and Shuttle America – reported increased employment levels from November 2013. The others reported decreases (Table 15). Regional carriers typically provide service from small cities, using primarily regional jets to support the network carriers’ hub and spoke systems.

Carrier Groups: The five network airlines employed 66.4 percent of the total number of FTEs employed by all scheduled passenger airlines in November, the six low-cost carriers employed 18.9 percent and the 13 regional carriers employed 13.1 percent (Table 4). The three airlines with the most FTEs in November – United, Delta and American – employed 55.6 percent of the month’s total passenger airline FTEs (Tables 3, 6).

Top Employers by Group: United employed the most FTEs (78,890) in November among the network airlines, Southwest employed the most FTEs (46,299) among low-cost airlines, and Envoy employed the most FTEs (11,661) among regional airlines. Four of the top five employers in the industry are network airlines (Table 6). 

Airline Mergers: Airlines that announce mergers typically begin joint reporting following U.S. Department of Transportation approval and issuance of a single economic certificate.  Southwest and AirTran Airways began joint reporting of their financial data, including employment numbers, in April 2012 under a waiver granted by the Department, while continuing to report all other data as separate carriers. American and US Airways, following their December 2013 merger announcement, will report separately until the Department approves single carrier reporting and a single economic certificate is issued.

In March 2014 (for January 2014 data), the Department began displaying combined on-time performance data, mishandled baggage data, oversales data and complaint data in its for Southwest and Air Tran, as well as for American and U.S. Airways, because both sets of airlines are sufficiently integrated that consumers perceive them as a single airline. The Air Travel Consumer Report also continues to display the separate performance data of each of these airlines and will continue to do so until a single economic certificate is issued.

Network Airlines
Recent Changes: The network airlines employed 909 more FTEs in November 2014 than in November 2013, a 0.4 percent increase. Four of the five network carriers reported FTE increases from November 2013 while United reported a decrease (Tables 8, 9).

Longer-term Changes: The network airlines employed 143 more FTEs in November 2014 than in November 2010, a 0.1 percent increase.  American (-7.3 percent) reported a decrease in FTE employment from 2010 to 2014 while Alaska (12.9 percent), US Airways (7.0 percent) and Delta (3.2 percent) reported increases. United’s numbers for 2010 and 2014 are not directly comparable because of the intervening merger. United reported 3.7 percent more FTEs in November 2014 than United and Continental Airlines reported separately in November 2010 (Tables 8, 9).

Low-Cost Airlines
Recent Changes: The six low-cost airlines reported 5.2 percent more FTEs as a group from November 2013 to November 2014. All six low-cost airlines reported increases (Table 12).

Longer-term Changes: The low-cost carriers employed 8,355 more FTEs in November 2014 than in November 2010, up 12.9 percent. Spirit reported the largest percentage increase, 107.5 percent, while Frontier was the only low-cost carrier to report a decline, -26.1 percent. November 2014 numbers for Southwest are not directly comparable to 2010 because of the intervening merger. Southwest reported 8.0 percent more FTEs in November 2014 than Southwest and AirTran reported separately in November 2010 (Table 12).

Regional Airlines
Recent Changes: Regional airlines increased FTEs by 1.5 percent in November 2014 compared to November 2013. PSA and Mesa reported the largest percentage increases. Chautauqua Airlines and Air Wisconsin reported the largest percentage decreases (Table 15).

Longer-term Changes: The 13 regional carriers operating in November employed 3.9 percent fewer FTEs in 2014 than the 18 carriers reporting in November 2010.  Air Wisconsin and Horizon reported declines. GoJet reported the biggest four-year percentage gain. The ExpressJet/Atlantic Southeast combination reported 4.0 percent fewer FTEs in November 2014 than the two airlines reported separately in November 2010. The Endeavor/Mesaba combination reported 36.8 percent fewer FTE’s in November 2014 than the two airlines reported separately in November 2010 (Table 15).

Envoy operated as American Eagle prior to April 2014. Endeavor operated as Pinnacle prior to November 2013.

Reporting Notes

Airlines that operate at least one aircraft that has more than 60 seats or the capacity to carry a payload of passengers, cargo and fuel weighing more than 18,000 pounds must report monthly employment statistics.

The “Other Carrier” category generally reflects those airlines that operate within specific niche markets such as the Hawaiian Islands served by Hawaiian Airlines and Island Air Hawaii. 

Data are compiled from monthly reports filed with BTS by commercial air carriers as of Jan. 14.  Additional and previous press releases can be found on the BTS website. BTS has scheduled release of December passenger airline employment data for Feb. 19.

Table 1: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Airline Group

Most recent 13 months - percent change compared to same month the previous year

 Network AirlinesLow-Cost AirlinesRegional AirlinesAll Passenger Airlines**
Nov 2012-Nov 2013-0.1-0.1-0.5-0.1
Dec 2012-Dec 20130.3-0.6-0.50.3
Jan 2013-Jan 20140.40.3-0.40.5
Feb 2013-Feb 20140.10.70.50.4
Mar 2013-Mar 20140.60.80.90.8
Apr 2013-Apr 20140.41.52.31.0
May 2013-May 20140.51.82.41.1
Jun 2013-Jun 20140.32.21.90.9
Jul 2013-Jul 20140.42.53.51.3
Aug 2013-Aug 20140.13.02.51.0
Sep 2013-Sep 20140.42.91.91.1
Oct 2013-Oct 20140.33.8-0.20.9
Nov 2013-Nov 20140.45.21.51.5

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers. Other Carriers generally operate within specific niche markets. They are: Hawaiian Airlines, Sun Country Airlines and Island Air Hawaii.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Note: See Table 2 for all passenger airlines, Table 7 for Network, Table 10 for Low-Cost and Table 13 for Regional.

Table 2: Change from Previous Year in Scheduled Passenger Airline* Full-time Equivalent Employees**

Percent change compared to same month the previous year

Month2011201220132014
January-0.42.2-1.50.5
February0.22.2-1.70.4
March0.62.2-1.90.8
April1.11.9-1.81.0
May1.31.6-1.81.1
June1.41.2-1.70.9
July1.51.6-2.21.3
August2.00.2-1.51.0
September2.1-0.6-0.91.1
October2.2-1.1-0.30.9
November2.5-1.50.11.5
December2.4-1.90.3 

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 3: Scheduled Passenger Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month 2010-2014

Month20102011201220132014Percent Change
2010-20142013-2014
January379,388377,728385,965380,042381,8190.60.5
February378,020378,616387,084380,414381,9851.00.4
March377,261379,696387,962380,540383,5751.70.8
April376,204380,391387,452380,487384,2652.11.0
May376,957381,960388,199381,372385,6192.31.1
June378,297383,475388,160381,672385,2431.80.9
July378,060383,863390,032381,299386,2432.21.3
August377,835385,578386,181380,486384,4781.81.0
September377,676385,782383,596380,165384,4391.81.1
October378,114386,587382,334381,178384,7001.70.9
November380,626386,550380,943381,224386,9121.71.5
December377,729386,932379,576380,809   
12-Month Average378,014383,097385,624380,807   
Jan-Nov Average378,040382,748386,173380,807384,4801.71.0

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

** Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 4: Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2010-2014

 NetworkLow-CostRegionalAll Passenger Airlines**
2010256,68064,65752,661380,626
2011260,31868,45052,954386,550
2012256,14169,44150,100380,943
2013255,91469,40249,851381,224
2014256,82373,01450,605386,912
Pct. Change 2010-20140.1%12.9%-3.9%1.7%
Percent of Total Passenger Airline Employees in 201466.4%18.9%13.1% 

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

Table 5: Year-to-Year Change in Airline Group Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2010-2014

Percent change in FTEs from the same month of the previous year

 NetworkLow-CostRegionalAll Passenger Airlines**
2010-1.93.2-1.0-0.6
20112.85.90.62.5
2012-1.61.4-5.4-1.5
2013-0.1-0.1-0.50.1
20140.45.21.51.5

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Includes network, low-cost, regional and other carriers.

Table 6: Top 10 Airlines, November 2014

Ranked by Number of Full-Time Equivalent Employees*

RankAirlineTotal FTE EmployeesCarrier Group**Top 10 Airlines November 2013
1United78,890NetworkUnited
2Delta75,487NetworkDelta
3American60,614NetworkAmerican
4Southwest46,299Low-CostSouthwest
5US Airways31,700NetworkUS Airways
6JetBlue13,677Low-CostJetBlue
7Envoy**11,661RegionalAmerican Eagle
8Alaska10,132NetworkSkyWest
9SkyWest9,774RegionalAlaska
10ExpressJet8,800RegionalExpressJet

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Envoy operated as American Eagle prior to April 2014

*** See Table 9 for Network, Table 12 for Low-Cost and Table 15 for Regional.

Table 7: Network Airline Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

Percent change compared to same month of the previous year

 2011201220132014
January-0.91.7-2.10.4
February-0.21.4-1.90.1
March0.31.3-2.20.6
April0.61.4-2.00.4
May0.91.4-2.00.5
June0.91.1-1.80.3
July1.00.8-1.70.4
August1.6-0.2-1.50.1
September1.6-0.7-1.00.4
October1.6-1.1-0.60.3
November2.4-1.6-0.10.4
December1.9-2.20.4 

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Table 8: Network Airlines Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month 2010-2014

Month20102011201220132014Percent Change
2010-20142013-2014
January257,787255,433259,749254,377255,518-0.90.4
February256,756256,331259,971254,955255,158-0.60.1
March256,504257,355260,666254,871256,342-0.10.6
April255,697257,329260,876255,673256,7320.40.4
May255,518257,819261,426256,274257,5780.80.5
June256,576258,782261,539256,791257,4910.40.3
July256,373258,839260,982256,474257,5410.50.4
August256,122260,119259,617255,800256,0950.00.1
September255,752259,782257,875255,194256,1330.10.4
October255,890260,056257,270255,741256,4090.20.3
November256,680260,318256,140255,914256,8230.10.4
December254,912259,821254,065255,155   
12-Month Average256,214258,499259,181255,602   
Jan-Nov Average256,332258,378259,646255,642256,5290.10.3

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Table 9: Network Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2010-2014

(FTEs for November of each year. Ranked by November 2014 FTEs)

RankAirline20102011201220132014Percent Change
2010-20142013-2014
1UA/CO Combined76,08080,99782,38181,88078,8903.7-3.7
 United**43,60943,76182,38181,88078,890N/A-3.7
 Continental**35,94737,236N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
2Delta73,17273,36972,71273,57575,4873.22.6
3American65,36166,35761,45759,46260,614-7.31.9
4US Airways29,61530,65130,38331,49831,7007.00.6
5Alaska8,9768,9449,2089,49910,13212.96.7
 Total256,680260,318256,141255,914256,8230.10.4

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** United Airlines and Continental Airlines merged and began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

Table 10: Low-Cost Airline Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

Percent change compared to same month of the previous year

Month2011201220132014
January2.25.71.10.3
February2.36.40.20.7
March2.37.1-0.10.8
April4.05.7-0.31.5
May4.15.3-0.31.8
June5.04.0-0.62.2
July5.33.5-0.42.5
August5.72.50.03.0
September5.92.5-0.22.9
October6.21.9-0.13.8
November5.91.4-0.15.2
December6.61.3-0.6 

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 11: Low-Cost Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month 2010-2014

 20102011201220132014Percent Change
2010-20142013-2014
January63,60064,97868,68469,46469,6939.60.3
February63,84565,32169,47369,63070,1359.90.7
March63,78365,27369,88669,85370,38410.30.8
April63,57166,11469,86169,67770,75111.31.5
May63,93366,55370,05369,81871,09511.21.8
June64,04667,26169,96969,57471,07411.02.2
July63,98267,37369,75669,51071,27211.42.5
August64,02567,68269,38069,28671,38711.53.0
September64,11467,87569,57369,42671,42811.42.9
October64,29968,26969,55269,49672,11012.13.8
November64,65968,45069,44169,40273,01412.95.2
December64,65268,88769,78169,365   
12-Month Average64,04267,00369,61769,542   
Jan-Nov Average63,98766,83269,60369,55871,12211.22.2

Source: Nextstagesolutions

Note: Percent changes and averages based on numbers prior to rounding.

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Table 12: Low-Cost Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2010-2014

(FTEs for November of each year. Ranked by November 2014 FTEs)

Rank 20102011201220132014Percent Change
2010-20142013-2014
1WN/FL Combined42,87945,60545,95344,91146,2998.03.1
 Southwest**35,00537,59245,95344,91146,299N/A3.1
 AirTran7,8748,013N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
2JetBlue11,28512,10312,46512,99013,67721.25.3
3Spirit2,1432,4322,8883,5214,447107.526.3
4Frontier4,9724,6583,9503,4443,672-26.16.6
5Virgin America1,7662,0912,4072,4882,52142.81.3
6Allegiant1,6141,5621,7792,0482,39848.617.1
 Total64,65968,45169,44269,40273,01412.95.2

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways merged and began reporting combined employment numbers in April 2012.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 13: Regional Airline Year-to-Year Change in Full-time Equivalent Employees* from the Previous Year

Percent change compared to same month of the previous year

Month2011201220132014
January0.40.1-4.1-0.4
February0.90.8-5.00.5
March1.80.2-4.60.9
April2.1-1.5-3.82.3
May1.6-2.2-4.52.4
June1.5-2.5-4.41.9
July1.9-3.3-6.33.5
August2.1-2.3-5.12.5
September2.0-4.3-3.01.9
October2.1-6.0-0.8-0.2
November0.6-5.4-0.51.5
December1.5-5.4-0.5 

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 14: Regional Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees* by Month 2010-2014

 20102011201220132014Percent Change
2010-20142013-2014
January52,53152,76452,79650,64050,425-4.0-0.4
February51,95252,40952,83150,19150,458-2.90.5
March51,52252,46852,58150,18150,623-1.70.9
April51,50252,59651,81149,38750,526-1.92.3
May52,07452,93051,74649,42450,633-2.82.4
June52,21052,98451,66449,41550,336-3.61.9
July52,22953,19752,71549,38751,107-2.13.5
August52,17953,28452,08249,43450,671-2.92.5
September52,32253,36151,08249,54650,512-3.51.9
October52,40253,49050,30549,89049,789-5.0-0.2
November52,66152,95450,10049,85150,605-3.91.5
December52,54953,32850,42650,191   
12-Month Average52,17852,98051,67849,795   
Jan-Nov Average52,14452,94951,79249,75950,517-3.11.5

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Table 15: Regional Airline Full-time Equivalent Employees*, November 2010-2014

(FTEs for November of each year. Ranked by November 2014 FTEs)

Rank 20102011201220132014Percent Change
2010-20142013-2014
1Envoy**9,45610,16210,61611,09911,66123.35.1
2SkyWest9,0639,4689,2839,5959,7747.81.9
3XE/EV Combined9,1719,2938,8249,0858,800-4.0-3.1
 ExpressJet***5,4345,4418,8249,0858,800N/A-3.1
 Atlantic Southeast***3,7373,852N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
49E/XJ Combined5,6195,6374,7503,9873,550-36.8-11.0
 Endeavor****3,4473,7454,7503,9873,550N/A-11.0
 Mesaba****2,1721,892N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
5Republic2,1041,9722,1152,6333,06645.716.4
6Horizon2,9202,8452,7032,7242,855-2.24.8
7Air Wisconsin2,5202,5802,5652,4681,895-24.8-23.2
8Shuttle America2,0641,8351,5751,7702,1825.723.3
9Mesa1,2981,5751,8571,9881,99153.40.2
10PSA9981,0391,0901,1021,71972.256.0
11Compass9501,0221,0991,1421,19926.25.0
12GoJet5676611,0511,1221,09793.5-2.2
13Chautauqua#N/AN/A1,3071,136816N/A-28.2
14Executive##1,7751,8021,267N/AN/AN/AN/A
15Colgan###1,3911,1011N/AN/AN/AN/A
16Comair####2,6431,965N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
17Lynx#####122N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
 Total52,66152,95750,10349,85150,605-3.91.5

Source: Nextstagesolutions

* Full-time Equivalent Employee (FTE) calculations count two part-time employees as one full-time employee.

** Envoy Air operated as American Eagle prior to April 2014.

*** ExpressJet Airlines and Atlantic Southeast Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

**** Endeavor Airlines operated as Pinnacle prior to August 2013. Pinnacle Airlines and Mesaba Airlines began reporting combined numbers in January 2012.

# Effective July 2012 Chautauqua Airlines began reporting employment data.

## Effective the end of March 2013, Executive Airlines ceased operations.

### Effective the end of September 2012, Colgan Airlines ceased operations.

#### Effective the end of October 2012, Comair ceased operations.

##### Effective the end of March 2011, Lynx Airlines ceased operations.

N/A: Carriers did not meet the standard for filing, was no longer operating, merged with another operating carrier or failed to file. See previous notes.

Note: Percent changes based on numbers prior to rounding.

Updated: Friday, December 15, 2017
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